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In 1977, a two-volume book was edited by Piechowski as it was going to press. Dabrowski eschewed this book and the unedited manuscripts were posthumously published in 1996. This page elaborates the issues related to this matter.
Major issues arose between Dr. Dabrowski and Dr. Michael Piechowski over the publication of the 1977 Dabor books. These differences have created ongoing confusion. This material highlights the conceptual differences (titles and text) and other issues (authorship and preface) involved.
I recognize and appreciate the contributions that Dr. Piechowski has made to Dr. Dabrowski's work. However, where these two authors differ in their interpretation of issues, it is important to differentiate their approaches, especially for those who are involved in detailed study of Dabrowski's theory. Dr. Piechowski has reviewed this information and I have incorporated several changes suggested by Dr. Piechowski.
Piechowski revised the galley proofs of the 1977 books as they went to press, making several fundamental changes in the manuscripts.
- The titles and subtitles were changed. The name of the theory was changed to "the theory of emotional development" and self-actualization was described as the goal of development.
- Piechowski inserted a case study of Saint-Exupéry equating self-actualization with Dabrowski's levels (chapter 8 of Volume 2). This material was in press at the time and was subsequently published (Piechowski, 1978).
- The preface inserted in the 1977 books was written by Dabrowski endorsing a journal article of Piechowski's and was previously published in that context (Piechowski, 1975). It therefore did not endorse the content of these books.
- The representation of authorship was changed.
- Dabrowski rejected these changes, would not acknowledge the books, and called for the republication of the original manuscripts. This was not accomplished until 1996.
- As can be seen on pages 18 to 26 of volume 1, Piechowski describes level I and II very much as Dabrowski did, his revision of levels I and II occurred after his move into the gifted area.
-The first manuscript for the books was reproduced and bound in one volume by the University of Alberta (Dabrowski, 1970).
-In 1972, Volume 2 was expanded and reproduced and bound as a manuscript by the University of Alberta. (Dabrowski and Piechowski, 1972).
-In 1974, Volume 1 was expanded and reproduced and bound as a manuscript by the University of Alberta. (Dabrowski, 1974).
-The 1972 and 1974 manuscripts were edited by Piechowski while Dabrowski was in Poland and submitted to Dabor Publishers to produce the 1977 books.
The following chart shows key differences between the original manuscript titles and the titles as published.
A glance at the references will show that the 1972 and 1974 manuscript titles were changed for the 1977 books as shown above:
These changes had two major effects:
One: The phrase "Dabrowski's Theory of Emotional Development" was subsequently popularized by Dr. Piechowski in his works and lectures. This was rejected by Dr. Dabrowski as he felt the title change narrowed the scope of his theory and altered its focus away from positive disintegration and from personality development.
The result of these changes has been confusion about what Dabrowski's theory is called: Other authors have subsequently referred to "Dabrowski's Theory of Emotional Development" as the title of the theory, for example, Silverman (1993a, 1993b). Some authors now use both titles, for example, Piirto (1997, p. 7) says "the Dabrowski Theory of Positive Disintegration (as it is called in Canada, or of Emotional Development, as it is called in the United States)."
Second: the revised subtitle of volume 2 implies that the goal of development is self-actualization. Dabrowski was very opposed to equating self-actualization with his higher levels and thus he strongly rejected this subtitle.
-Following APA citation guidelines.
-The 1974 manuscript (Volume 1), was published as a work by Dabrowski (no other
authors appear on the manuscript).
--Volume 1 of the 1977 book was published as Dabrowski with Piechowski. Piechowski was also listed as the author of chapters 1, 2, 3, 5 and as coauthor of chapter 6.
-The 1972 manuscript (Volume 2), was published as coauthored by Dabrowski & Piechowski (with the assistance of Dexter Amend and Marlene King).
--Volume 2 of the 1977 book was published as coauthored by Dabrowski & Piechowski (with the assistance of Dexter Amend and Marlene King).
Subsequently, the two volumes have often been referenced collectively as Dabrowski & Piechowski, 1977.
Piechowski inserted a case study of Saint-Exupéry as chapter 8 of Volume 2. This material equated Dabrowski's levels with self-actualization. This material was in press at the time and was subsequently published (Piechowski, 1978). Dabrowski made it very clear that he rejected equating Maslow's theory of self-actualization with his own.
- There are a number of other minor differences in the text. In my opinion, a direct comparison best serves the interested reader.
The preface of the 1977 books was originally written by Dabrowski endorsing a journal article of Piechowski's and was previously published in that context (Piechowski, 1975). It therefore does not endorse the 1977 books.
It should be noted for research purposes the data presented in the original manuscripts is more comprehensive but that the data presented in the 1977 works is more accurate (several mistakes in calculation were corrected but several data points are omitted). This information came from Dr. Piechowski.
-Dabrowski would not acknowledge the 1977 books after they were published and asked several people (including me) to help in republishing the original manuscripts.
-As per Dr. Dabrowski's wishes, a reprinting of the original titles and text of the 1972 / 1974 manuscripts was done in 1996, in Poland, by Mrs. Dabrowski (Dabrowski, 1996).
-The 1996 reprinting bound both volumes into one book (now listed as part 1 and part 2). Dabrowski was listed as author of parts 1 and 2. Piechowski was listed as an "assistant" on part 2 (along with Dexter Amend and Marlene King).
-An errata from the publisher has been circulated to correct the citation of part 2 to reflect the 1972 manuscript (indicating Piechowski as the co-author of part 2).
Dr. Piechowski has indicated that he believes that the authorship citations of the 1974 manuscript and of the 1996 book (part 1) are inaccurate and that the correct citation of his role appears in the 1977 book (Volume 1).
For a recent (2009) accounting of the conceptual differences between Dabrowski and Piechowski, see this paper.
Dabrowski, K. (1970). Multilevelness of Instinctive and Emotional Functions. Edmonton: Department of Psychology, University of Alberta.
Dabrowski, K. (1974). Multilevelness of Emotional and Instinctive Functions Vol. I: Theory and Description of Levels of Behavior. Edmonton: Department of Psychology, University of Alberta.
Dabrowski, K. with Piechowski, M. M. (1977). Theory of Levels of Emotional Development: Volume 1 - Multilevelness And Positive Disintegration. Oceanside, New York: Dabor Science Publications.
Dabrowski, K. (1996). Multilevelness of emotional and instinctive functions. Part 1: Theory and description of levels of behavior. Lublin, Poland: Towarzystwo Naukowe Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego. [Published in English with a new preface by Czeslaw Cekiera. 446 pages. ISBN # 83-86668-51-2. Published in one soft cover binding along with Part 2.]
Dabrowski, K., & Piechowski, M. (1972). Multilevelness of Instinctive and Emotional Functions Vol. 2: Types and Levels of Development. Edmonton: Department of Psychology, University of Alberta.
Dabrowski, K. & Piechowski, M. M. (1977). Theory of Levels of Emotional Development: Volume 2 - From Primary Integration To Self-Actualization. Oceanside, New York: Dabor Science Publications.
Dabrowski, K. & Piechowski, M. M. (with Marlene [Rankel] and Dexter R. Amend). (1996). Multilevelness of emotional and instinctive functions. Part 2: Types and Levels of Development. Lublin, Poland: Towarzystwo Naukowe Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego. [Published in English with a new preface by Czeslaw Cekiera. 446 pages. ISBN # 83-86668-51-2. Published in one soft cover binding with Part 1.]
Piechowski, M. M. (1975). A theoretical and empirical approach to the study of development. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 92, 231-297.
Piechowski, M. M. (1978). Self-actualization as a developmental structure: A profile of Antoine de Saint-Exupery. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 97, 181-242.
Piechowski, M. M. (1991). [Invited commentary.] Characteristics of the self-actualized person: Visions from the east and west. Counseling and Values, 36, 19-20.
Piirto, J. (1997, November). Twelve issues: Implications of post-modern curriculum theory for the education of the talented. Paper presented at the meeting of the National Association for Gifted Children Conference, Little Rock, AR. [On-line]. Available: http://www.ashland.edu/~jpiirto/public/postmodweb.html (Dr. Piirto also has a textbook out on the theme, Talented Children And Adults: Their Development And Education, 2nd edition, 1998 Toronto: Prentice-Hall. I have not referenced it here as I have not seen it.)
Silverman, L. K. (Ed.). (1993a). Counseling the gifted and talented. Denver: Love Publishing.
Silverman, L. K. (1993b). Counseling needs of the gifted. In K. Heller, F. Monks & A. H. Passow (Eds.), The international handbook of research and development of giftedness and talent (pp. 631-647). Oxford, England: Pergamon Press.